Archive for the ‘Info Keli’ Category

The Fisheries Department will implement four projects in Sarawak in the near future under the National Food Safety Policy.

December 29, 2008
ENHANCING FISH AND AQUACULTURE INDUSTRY: Junaidi (second right) chairs the MPI meeting. Hazizi is on right while Azlisha on second left.

The projects identified by the department are: Rehabilitation of Idle Fish Ponds, Creation of Aquaculture Industry and Hatchery Zones, Green Earth, and Giving out Incentives.

This was disclosed by the director-general Datuk Junaidi Che Ayub when he chaired a meeting of the Industrial Dialogue Council (Majlis Perundingan Industry – MPI) here yesterday.

The meeting was also attended by the department’s director of Bio Security, Diagnostic and Quality Control Division, Ahmad Hazizi Aziz; state Marine Fisheries director, Azlisha Abdul Aziz; officers of related government departments; fishermen and industry players.

Using the projects under the Ministry of Agriculture and Agro-Based Industry, the government will help rehabilitate idle fish ponds by giving money, equipment, fish fry, and feeds to the owners.

Aquaculture and hatchery zones will be created to increase production and fish fry.

Under the Green Earth project, rearing of catfish (ikan keli) in semi-urban and rural areas will be accorded greater priority, and those doing it will be given plastic or canvas tanks, fry, feeds and equipment.

The government will also give cash incentives to productive rearers based on the tonnage of fish or prawns harvested.

On export of fish and fish-products, particularly to countries in Europe, Junaidi said it was very important for Malaysian rearers, exporters and competent authorities to comply fully with European Union (EU) requirements in all aspects of rearing, safety, traceability and hygiene in order to avoid rejection of consignment which would cause major losses to all parties.

“All parties including middlemen should keep proper records. We must be prepared for the implementation of food traceability system worldwide one day,” said Junaidi.

He expressed sadness as regards to recent audit findings by the Health Department that no fish factory in Sarawak could meet EU standard.

He also advised fishermen and owners of fish ponds to improve their Hygiene On Board (HOB) criteria and practices in respect of design, layout, personal hygiene, hygienic ice-cubes and clean water sources to meet stringent requirements by EU countries.

“The department will conduct HOB checks on vessels and aquaculture farms in Sarawak soon,” he said.

Junaidi also disclosed that recently Australia gave consent to the department to issue Certificate of Hygiene for fish and fish-products and prawns and prawn-products, effective next month.

On export to the USA, Junaidi disclosed that recently the USFDA Seafood HACCP Inspection Mission audited six companies in Malaysia.

From Korea the department has also received a request to audit fish-processing companies in the country, including seafood company premises.

This, said Junaidi, augured well for the development of the fish export sector.

He cautioned that their high standard must be met first.

–BorneoPost (2008-07-11)

Penduduk sekitar Sri Aman digalak ternak ikan keli

December 28, 2008
source : (Sabah & Sarawak)

SIMOI Peri menyampaikan sijil tamat kursus kepada salah seorang peserta (kiri) Kursus Keusahawanan dan Pengendalian Lepas Tuai Ikan Keli di Sri Aman, semalam.

SRI AMAN 17 Dis. – Penduduk tempatan di sekitar bahagian Sri Aman terutamanya di Lingga digalakkan untuk menceburi bidang penternakan ikan keli yang semakin mendapat permintaan di pasaran.

Ahli Dewan Undangan Negeri (DUN) Lingga, Simoi Peri berkata, penglibatan dalam bidang tersebut secara tidak langsung menggalakkan penduduk di kawasan ini terbabit dalam bidang keusahawanan yang memberi peluang kepada masing-masing untuk meningkatkan pendapatan.

Menurutnya, penglibatan penduduk khususnya kaum bumiputera dalam bidang penternakan ikan keli juga dilihat sebagai langkah awal dalam melibatkan diri dengan dunia perniagaan yang boleh dikembangkan sehingga ke peringkat antarabangsa.

”Penduduk tidak perlu risau dengan pasaran ikan keli ini kerana Lembaga Pemasaran Pertanian Persekutuan (FAMA) boleh membantu untuk memasarkan hasil-hasil ternak tersebut di seluruh negeri ini.

”Malah, projek penternakan ikan keli ini tidak melibatkan kos pengendalian yang tinggi, maka adalah bagi penduduk di kawasan luar bandar untuk menceburi bidang terbabit,” katanya.

Beliau berucap merasmikan Majlis Penutupan Kursus Keusahawanan dan Pengendalian Lepas Tuai Ikan Keli di sebuah restoran tempatan di bandar Sri Aman di sini semalam.

Simoi berkata, beliau yakin penduduk di kawasan Sri Aman mampu melangkah lebih jauh dalam bidang penternakan ikan keli memandangkan belum terdapat mana-mana pihak yang menceburi bidang terbabit secara serius di daerah berkenaan.

Katanya, para penduduk perlu sedar bahawa ikan keli mempunyai pasaran luas malah menjadi hidangan makanan kegemaran orang ramai di restoran-restoran di bandar utama di Sarawak.

Sehubungan itu tambahnya, beliau meminta pengerusi Jawatankuasa Keselamatan dan Kemajuan Kampung (JKKK) dan ketua kaum di daerah ini mengenalpasti para penduduk yang berminat untuk menceburi penternakan ikan keli itu.

”Orang ramai juga boleh mendapatkan maklumat lanjut daripada pihak bertanggungjawab khususnya Jabatan Pertanian sekiranya berminat untuk memulakan bidang ini,” ujarnya.

Dalam pada itu, seramai 42 peserta telah menamatkan kursus anjuran Unit Pembangunan Usahawan Bumiputera, Jabatan Ketua Menteri dengan kerjasama Majlis Pembangunan Usahawan Bumiputera Bahagian Sri Aman dan FAMA.

Catfish: Marketing

December 19, 2008
Market channels have been developed that are capable of handling the larger volumes of production of a mature industry. For most catfish producers, the most readily accessible market outlet is to sell directly to a processor. This is an outlet through which a producer can market a very large volume of fish. It is also a market that is available on a year-round basis.

The number of catfish processing facilities has varied over time as processing plants have been built, closed, restarted, and sold. Since a peak of catfish processing companies in 1990, the number of processors has fluctuated between 25 and 28 processors. There are four multi-plant processors with capacities greater than 50 million pounds/year, 12 with capacities between 10 to 50 million pounds/year, and three companies with 5 million pounds/year. These, combined with the very small facilities, comprised a total processing capacity of 676 million pounds of liveweight catfish in 2000.

As catfish farming continues to expand within and outside the traditional four-state region (Mississippi, Arkansas, Alabama, and Louisiana), additional processing companies are likely to enter the industry. However, it has been difficult to sustain operations without a guaranteed supply of fish, particularly in new or expanding catfish production areas. Some plants pay premium fish prices and transport fish long distances to keep plants working at full capacity. Competition for fish from traditional production areas from plants in non-traditional areas is expected to increase, at least until sufficient local production can be developed to supply new plants.

Processors generally deal with many wholesale or retail customers, and they thus have a market for different sized fish. For this reason, processors will generally allow more latitude in the size distribution of fish than may be permissible through some other market outlets. A final advantage of selling to a processor is that the processor bears the majority of the liability for any problems related to product safety or quality.

Of course, selling to a processor is not without its disadvantages. The primary disadvantage is that the producer is a price taker. That is, the producer has very little ability to try to negotiate a higher price with the processor. This situation is common to most producers of agricultural commodities. It is also worth noting that a producer is not guaranteed to be able to sell to a processor at any given time. Processors do generally handle a large volume of fish, but from time to time, even large processors may not need to make additional purchases.

Given the weak bargaining position, it is to the producer’s advantage to have as much information about regional processors’ operational characteristics. Key information would include:
historical prices paid for fish from the plant as compared to other plants;
dockage rates (poundage or percentage deducted from the total delivery amount) for non-target fish, out-of-size fish, or other reasons;
required stock purchases and/or billbacks;
transportation charges;
payment frequency to growers and typical length of time between the time of delivery of fish and receipt of payment;
seasonality issues;
delivery volume requirements;
fish size requirements;
quality standards and checks;
delivery quotas and scheduling patterns;
availability of contracts and requirements; and
state bonding requirements.

Direct Sales

The primary alternative to selling to processors is to market directly to a customer further down the marketing chain. Producers may try to establish direct sales outlets with wholesalers, retailers (e.g., local grocers or restaurants), or final consumers. The primary advantage of direct selling is that it is potentially a high-margin activity. In direct selling, the producer captures all or a large portion of the marketing margin. But direct selling is not necessarily easy. It may be difficult for an individual producer to establish business relationships with wholesalers, grocers, or restaurants. Moreover, these direct sales outlets may have very strict requirements for their suppliers.

Another issue to consider is that direct sales to local grocery stores and restaurants will probably require on-site processing unless restaurant personnel clean the fish. The ability to process fish on-site will likely require the producer to have a functioning Hazard Analysis, Critical Control Points (HACCP) plan in place. In direct selling, the producer assumes a great deal more liability for product safety or quality problems than in selling to a processor. The major problem with direct sales to consumers is that this is typically a very low volume market outlet.

Consumer Demand and Preference

The per capita consumption of all fish and seafood in the United States hit a new high in 2003 at 16.3 pounds, up from 15.6 pounds in 2002. U.S. farm-raised catfish was the fifth most consumed fish item at 1.137 pounds per capita, up from only 0.41 pounds per capita in 1985. In a recent survey of U.S. farm-raised catfish consumers, respondents stated that their reasons for eating catfish include:

enjoyment of flavor (68% of consumers),
health and nutrition (31%),
and addition of variety to their diet (22%).

The main reasons for not consuming catfish more often were:

price (22%),
lack of fresh product availability (16%),
lack of preparation knowledge (14%), and
too time consuming to prepare (13%).

Survey respondents that were located in “non-traditional” catfish consumption regions of the U.S. stated that they would eat more catfish if a good product was continuously available and secondly, if a variety of ready-to-eat products were widely available.

An important aspect of consumer preference relates to product form. Processors have responded to consumer preference by producing 60 to 70 percent fillets, 10 to 15 percent whole-dressed fish, 10 to 15 percent nuggets, and 10 to 15 percent value-added breaded, marinated, or strip/finger products.

Frozen fillet products have had the greatest increase both in volume and in sales. Processors sell approximately 50 percent of frozen product to distributors, 30 percent to national restaurant chains, and 20 percent to direct end users. Frozen products consist mainly of fillets, strips (from the whole fillet), or nuggets. Approximately 80 percent of fresh catfish products go to retail grocery stores or supermarket chains and the remainder to chain restaurants. Fresh catfish sold to retail groceries are usually in whole dressed, fillet, or nugget form. This preference for frozen over fresh fillets will likely continue, while fresh whole-dressed fish will continue to be favored over frozen whole-dressed fish.

source :

Catfish: Disease

December 19, 2008
The “low-intensity” management practices used prior to the 1980′s generally resulted in good pond water quality and lower overall stress on fish populations. Lower fish densities also meant less efficient transmission of disease organisms. Over the years, stocking and feeding rates steadily increased and producers adopted a multiple-batch cropping system wherein new populations of fingerlings were stocked into ponds with existing populations of larger fish. These production practices lead to the emergence of infectious diseases as the primary limiting factor in catfish production, and disease outbreaks are not uncommon even on well-run facilities.

About 45 percent of inventory losses on catfish fingerling farms are attributable to infectious diseases. Corresponding survey data for food-sized fish are lacking. Of the overall catfish losses caused by infectious disease, approximately 60 percent are the result of single or mixed bacterial infections, 30 percent result from parasitic infestation, 9 percent from fungal infections, and 1 percent are of viral etiology. Multiple or mixed infections often occur in pond raised channel catfish making treatment decisions difficult.

Economic losses resulting from infectious diseases are difficult to quantify because record keeping varies among farmers and many diseases go unreported. Nevertheless, infectious disease is believed to cost producers many millions of dollars in direct fish losses each year. In addition, infectious diseases influence profitability by increasing treatment costs, reducing food consumption by fish, increasing feed conversion ratios, and causing harvesting delays. Fish-eating birds may also be attracted to ponds with sick and dying fish causing further losses.

There are several disease syndromes for which the etiology remains in question, such as channel catfish anemia (CCA), which has also been referred to as “no blood disease”. Another syndrome is visceral toxicosis of catfish (VTC), believed to be caused by a toxin.

Once a disease outbreak occurs, effective health management requires three basic steps: problem identification, diagnosis, and corrective management–all of which must be performed in a timely manner to avoid further losses. Whenever multiple factors contribute to the disease process, it makes the diagnosis more difficult and often complicates corrective management.

source :

Catfish: Feeds and Feeding

December 16, 2008
Nutrient requirements and feeding characteristics of channel catfish have been extensively researched. This research has provided the basis for the formulation of efficient, economical diets and for the development of feeding strategies – both of which have been instrumental in the success of the catfish industry.


Catfish farmers are able to feed a nutritionally complete diet that provides required levels of nutrients and energy in a readily digestible form. It is essential to provide a complete diet because catfish can synthesize only a small portion of the required nutrients and the quantity of nutrients from natural food organisms in the pond is relatively small. Forty nutrients have been identified as necessary for the normal metabolic function of channel catfish.

Based on current knowledge, a digestible energy to crude protein (DE/P) ratio of 8.5-10 kcal/gram is adequate for use in commercial catfish feeds. Ratios above this range may lead to increased fat deposition and if the energy ratio is too low, the fish will grow slowly.

Catfish feeds contain grain or grain by-products that are rich in starch. In addition to providing an inexpensive energy source, starch helps bind feed ingredients together and increases expansion of extruded feeds so that the feed pellets are water stable and float in the water. A typical catfish feed contains 25 percent or more of digestible carbohydrates.Lipid levels in commercial catfish feeds rarely exceed 5-6 percent. About 3-4 percent of the lipid is inherent in the feed ingredients, with the remaining 1-2 percent being sprayed onto the finished pellets to reduce feed “fines”. Both vegetable and animal lipids have been used for pellet coating.

Considerable work has been conducted over the last 10 years concerning the level of dietary protein and amino acids needed for cost effective growth. Data from these studies indicate that the dietary protein requirement for various life stages of catfish ranges from about 25-50 percent. Recent studies have indicated that a protein level of 28 percent is adequate for growout when fish are fed to satiation.

Catfish feed are generally supplemented with a vitamin premix to meet dietary requirements and to compensate for losses due to feed manufacture and storage. Catfish feeds are also supplemented with phosphorus and a trace mineral premix. However, there is evidence that supplemental trace minerals may not be need in diets using animal proteins.


There are various types of catfish feeds. The type being used at any particular time is a function of size of fish being fed, whether the fish are feeding at the surface or in the water column, and if an antibiotic is incorporated.

Catfish fry in hatcheries are fed finely ground meal- or flour-type feeds containing 45-50 percent protein. Fines or crumbles from 28 or 32 percent protein feeds for food fish growout are suitable for fry stocked in nursery ponds until they reach 1-2 inches in length. Larger fingerlings should be fed small floating pellets (1/8 inch diameter) containing 35 percent protein. Advanced fingerlings (5-6 inches) and food fish are generally fed a floating feed of approximately 5/32 – 3/16 inch in diameter containing 28-32 percent protein. Some producers switch to a slow-sinking feed during the winter.BDV-114930-BDV

Antibiotics are administered to catfish through incorporation in feeds. Depending on the particular antibiotic chosen, the feed may either be floating or sinking.


Despite considerable research, feeding catfish is far from an exact science. It is a highly subjective process that differs among catfish farmers. The variation in feeding practices is a product of numerous factors such as cropping system, fish size, ability to manage water quality, experience of feeding labor, and difficulty in estimating fish inventory.

In general, fish should be fed once a day as much feed as they will consume without adversely affecting water quality. However, depending on water quality variables and the health of the fish, it may be advisable to restrict the daily feed allowance or to feed less often. Long-term feed allowance should not exceed 100-125 pounds per acre per day.

Most catfish producers feed once a day, 7 days a week during the warmer months. Although feeding twice a day may slightly improve growth of fingerlings, the logistics of multiple feedings on large catfish farms make it impractical.

Feed is typically blown onto the surface of the water using mechanical feeders. Feeds should be scattered over as wide an area as possible to provide equal feeding opportunities for as many fish as possible. Feeding with prevailing winds allows the feed to float across the pond and minimizes the amount of feed washing ashore. Overfeeding should be avoided since wasted feed increases production costs.BDV-114930-BDV


Catfish: Water Quality

December 14, 2008
Water supplies for catfish ponds are usually of good initial quality. However, once the water is used for culture, its quality deteriorates. This deterioration of environmental conditions is ultimately traceable to the use of feed. Despite the use of high quality feeds and careful feeding practices, relatively little of the nutrient value of feed is converted to catfish flesh. The remaining nutrients derived from fish wastes stimulate excessive phytoplankton growth. High rates of phytoplankton metabolism cause pronounced diurnal fluctuations in dissolved oxygen concentrations, dissolved carbon dioxide concentrations, and pH. Such fluctuations cause stress in fish resulting in reduced fish growth rates, poor feed conversion, and reduced resistance to disease. In extreme instances, such as depletion of dissolved oxygen, fish may be unable to adapt and will die.
Literally hundreds of environmental variables may affect fish health and survival, but fortunately only a few are important in commercial catfish culture. Because their concentrations may change rapidly, substances affected by biological activity (dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide, ammonia, and nitrite) are the most important aspects of water quality and its management in catfish pond aquaculture.
The development of environment-related off-flavors is another important aspect of water quality management. Off-flavor is unlike the previously listed water quality variables because it does not pose a direct threat to fish health. Rather, it affects the acceptability of fish for processing, which causes delays in harvesting. As such, it increases the cost of production and exposes fish to additional risk of loss to diseases or predators.
Important Water Quality Variables
Dissolved Oxygen: The supply of dissolved oxygen often becomes limiting to catfish because the combined respiration of fish, phytoplankton, and mud-dwelling organisms exerts a tremendous demand for oxygen. At high phytoplankton biomass levels (which is the typical condition in catfish ponds during summer), oxygen production by algae is insufficient to meet the respiratory demand of the pond community and a daily oxygen deficit develops. If this deficit is not offset by artificial aeration, dissolved oxygen levels will drop very low and fish will die.
The key to successful management is early identification of those ponds that may require supplemental mechanical aeration to keep fish alive. Aeration is initiated when dissolved oxygen concentrations fall to a level considered critical (usually around 3 to 4 mg/L). Under current production practices, nearly every catfish pond has dissolved oxygen concentrations less than 2 mg/L at dawn during mid-summer. The duration of low dissolved oxygen concentrations at night usually ranges from 3 to 6 hours/day during mid-summer. Aeration is continued until past dawn when measurements indicate that dissolved oxygen concentrations are increasing as a result of photosynthetic activity.
Carbon dioxide: High rates of respiration in ponds with abundant plankton and high densities of fish result in rapid loss of dissolved oxygen and accumulation of carbon dioxide over the nighttime hours during summer months. Dissolved carbon dioxide concentrations of 5 to 10 mg/L are common on summer mornings in catfish ponds and appear to be well tolerated by channel catfish. They can survive in waters containing up to at least 60 mg/L dissolved carbon dioxide provided dissolved oxygen concentrations are high. Higher concentrations may cause death but chronic problems are rare because daytime uptake in photosynthesis normally serves to remove all the carbon dioxide that is produced in overnight respiration.
Ammonia: Ammonia is the major nitrogenous waste product excreted by fish. The fact that culture is possible at high feeding rates indicates that transformations and losses of nitrogen act to reduce ammonia concentrations. Additionally, as ammonia begins to accumulate, fish respond with reduced appetite, leading to lower rates of ammonia excretion and reduced ammonia concentrations in the water. As such, there are very few documented cases of acute ammonia intoxication in commercial channel catfish ponds. However, ammonia levels can be used to predict the onset of possible nitrite accumulations.
Nitrite: Nitrite is an intermediate product in nitrification, which is a common, bacteria-mediated transformation of ammonia to nitrate in soils and water. Nitrite accumulates to significant levels in ponds only when ammonia concentrations are relatively high and some factor causes the rate of ammonia oxidation to nitrite to exceed the rate of nitrite oxidation to nitrate. Accumulation of nitrite is undesirable because it can be toxic to fish at relatively low concentrations.
Nitrite toxicosis caused large losses of catfish in the early days of the industry, but losses are now very rare. An inexpensive and convenient prophylactic treatment using common salt has been developed and monitoring programs are easy to implement. As such, losses to nitrite toxicosis will result only when the farm manager is negligent in instituting the proper management plan.
When channel catfish are fed a grain-based diet and raised in clean water, they have a characteristic mild flavor. Pond-raised catfish may, however, develop flavors that can be disagreeable. All catfish processing plants sample fish for flavor quality before processing as a quality control measure. Fish are sampled several times over the weeks before a projected harvest date and if any of the samples have undesirable flavors, the fish will not be accepted for processing.
Most off-flavors in pond-raised catfish are caused by odorous compounds absorbed by fish from the water. Most off-flavors in pond-raised catfish are caused by naturally occurring organic compounds produced by aquatic bacteria or algae. These microorganisms synthesize and release compounds into the water, where they are absorbed through the gills, skin, or gastrointestinal tract of fish
Managing off-flavors can be divided into two general approaches: purging the compound by moving fish to a “clean” environment or using algicides to kill odorous aquatic bacteria or algae. Many farmers choose a more passive approach, however, and simply wait to harvest fish when they are on-flavor. This approach works to some degree because the composition of pond phytoplankton communities constantly changes. When community composition changes and the odor-producing species disappears, off-flavors produced by aquatic bacteria or algae will be purged from the flesh and flavor will improve. However, it is impossible to predict how long the odor-producing microorganisms will remain in the pond. They may disappear in a week or may persist for months.

Najib Goes Into Catfish Rearing

November 28, 2008
PEKAN: Deputy Prime Minister Datuk Seri Najib Razak, it seems, has also been bitten by the agriculture bug as he has taken up catfish rearing.
He revealed that he had taken up rearing the freshwater fish in the compound of his home here.

Speaking at the Hari Raya Aidilfitri gathering of the Farmers’ Association here yesterday, Najib, with a smile and to much amusement from those present, said he decided to do it after picking up some points on rearing the fish during his visit to the Malaysian Agriculture, Horticulture and Agro-tourism Show 2008.

“I have eight ponds in the compound of my house and 14,000 catfish fry were released into them,” he said in his speech.

Just when everyone thought that he was actually getting his hands dirty, he said the ponds and the catfish were being looked after by his aide from his home here.

“I provided the capital, he does the work and monitors them, and we split the profits,” he said, as everyone burst out laughing.

“I want to see how this modern agriculture concept works out.”

On a serious note, he said it was about time farmers made it a point to look into and learn to cultivate high-value agriculture products.Among them, he said were the rearing of catfish as well as swiftlets.

Source : NST 26 Oct 2008

World Catfish Festival 2007

November 2, 2008
Miss Catfish 2007
Erin Virginia Legg

Miss Catfish Winners

Master of Ceremonies, Cham Trotter; Miss Catfish 2006, Mary Cile Glover-Rodgers; Miss Catfish 2007, Erin Virginia Legg; First Alternate, Leah Barger; Second Alternate, Erin Danielle Morgan and Miss Congeniality, Haley Overby.

source :

Ternakan Ikan Keli (Catfish)

October 30, 2008

Ikan keli adalah sejenis ikan air tawar yang banyak terdapat di Malaysia . Ikan keli boleh didapati di kebanyakan sawah padi, sungai kuala dan tasik.

Sekarang ni ikan keli mula diternak di dalam kolam buatan dan dikomersial. Ikan keli menjadi hidangan yang diminati ramai kerana rasanya yang enak dan berkhasiat ikan keli terdiri dari pelbagai jenis spesies iaitu keli bunga, keli kayu, keli esotik dan keli memah.

Ikan keli boleh diternak dalam kolam besar, kanvas atau sekadar dalam kolah. Mudah membiak dengan memberi makan reja daging ayam, lemak ayam dan sebagainya. Ikan keli yang diternak di kawasan sawah padi dapat membantu mengawal makluk perosak dengan memakan ulat2, larva cacing dan serangga.

Untuk menjadikan ternakan keli ini sebagai komersial, pengusaha perlu sekurang2nya menternak 100 ribu ekor bagi satu spesies ikan keli. Kolam ternakan boleh di disediakan dalam bentuk kolam tanah, kolam simen dan juga kolam kanvas. Ikan keli di beri makan seperti pellet, daging atau lemak ayam, ikan baja atau roti. Ikan lebih gemar makanan berbentuk pepejal.

Hasil ikan keli oleh dikutip selepas 60-90 hari selepas di lepaskan dalam kolam. Purata berat sekitar 200gram sekilo dan dijual sekitar RM3 sekilo. Pada masa ini disebabkan permintaan semakin meningkat harga boleh mencecah antara RM4.50-RM5 sekilo di pasaran terbuka.

Industri ternakan ikan keli ini adalah adalah satu industri yang menguntungkan pada masa ini. Memandangkan permintaan tinggi, pulangan yang cepat dalam 3 bulan, tidak memerlukan ruang yang besar dan kos penyelengaaraan yang rendah dan lebih jimat jika diproses sendiri, menjadikan industri lebih menguntungkan jika diusahakan. Selain untuk masakan ikan keli boleh juga dip roses dagingnya seperti surimi,ikan salai dan sardin.

Peluang ini boleh dipelajari dari pelbagai agensi antaranya seperti Kelab Usahawan Tani Malaysia (KUAT) yang banyak bekerjasama dengan JPK, MECD dan LPP. KUAT sering menganjurkan seminar2 asas tani oleh itu jika ada yang berminat boleh la hubungi no berikut:
Aminuddin Mohamad 016-6113413 / siti Azliza 03-20905109

Sumber : Utusan Malaysia Jumaat 26 Oktober 2007

Nasihat dan Panduan Kepada Usahawan Penternakan Ikan Keli

October 21, 2008

Dipetik dari
September 22, 2008

Kami terus membuktikan bahawa perniagaan dalam penternakan ikan keli ini mempunyai masa hadapan yang amat cerah jika disertakan dengan ilmu penternakan yang betul dan strategi pemasaran yang kukuh. Selepas penyertaan kami di MAHA 2008 di mana kami telah tidak putus-putus didatangi segenap lapisan usahawan dan bakal usahawan penternak yang inginkan maklumat berkenaan dengan penternakan ikan keli, kini ladang Pembenihan kami di Taman Desa Kundang, Rawang tidak menang tangan untuk melayani pelanggan-pelanggan di mana terdapat ramai usahawan penternak samada baru dan lama mula membeli benih-benih ikan keli kami.

Pengalaman sebelum ini dari ratio penternak baru yang dihasilkan dianggarkan dari 10 usahawan penternak baru yang lahir akan menyaksikan hanya 4 usahawan penternak yang kembali membeli anak benih keli dan selebihnya gagal atau ‘patah jiwa’ untuk meneruskan penternakan ikan keli. MENGAPA?

Ini jawapan kami kepada ramai usahawan penternak baru. Atau anda boleh mengambilnya sebagai pesanan atau nasihat ikhlas daripada kami.

1. Kebanyakkan usahawan penternak bermula dari ‘zero’ dan terburu-buru memulakan penternakan tanpa mendapatkan ilmu yang betul dari penternak-penternak yang telah berjaya. Ramai juga yang telah mengambil nasihat atau tunjuk ajar dari mereka yang juga tidak mahir atau berlandaskan ‘cakap-cakap’ kosong tanpa bukti kukuh.

Oleh itu kepada usahawan-usahawan penternakan ikan keli yang baru hendaklah mulakan dahulu dengan banyak bertanya dan melawat ladang-ladang ikan keli yang telah lama beroperasi, contohnya di ladang penternakan Green Vision Sdn Bhd di Bestari Jaya (dahulu dikenali dengan nama Batang Berjuntai), Kuala Selangor; ataupun melawat ladang pembenihan kami (yang sentiasa terbuka kepada anda semua kecuali hari cuti umum dan tamat waktu operasi!).

Ataupun menyertai kursus-kursus yang dianjurkan oleh kami dari Koperasi Penternakan Akuakultur Air Tawar Berhad (KOTAWA) yang diiktiraf oleh Jabatan Perikanan Malaysia dan Kementerian Pembangunan Usahawan. Anda disarankan juga mengambil kursus-kursus yang dianjurkan oleh Jab Perikanan tetapi selepas itu harus juga melawat atau bertemu dengan penternak atau pengusaha-pengusaha yang telah berjaya. Kemahiran teori tidak 100% benar jika tidak disertai dengan kemahiran impimentasi!

Terdapat banyak kursus yang dianjurkan oleh pelbagai pihak tetapi anda hendaklah juga mengambil sedikit masa untuk mengkaji ‘penceramah’ itu samada telah mempunyai pengalaman membuka ladang penternakan sendiri; atau mengkaji saiz perniagaan mereka samada mereka telah mempunyai beratus atau beribu kolam penternakan ikan air tawar terutamanya ikan keli. Ini semua untuk anda juga kerana berbalik kepada kenyataan kami tadi: KEMAHIRAN TEORI TIDAK 100% BENAR JIKA TIDAK DISERTAI DENGAN KEMAHIRAN IMPLIMENTASI ATAU PERLAKSANAAN! Ini adalah pengalaman kami sendiri dan percayalah bahawa kami tidak akan sampai ke sini jika tidak disertai dengan pengalaman menempuh sendiri pelbagai suka-duka menjalankan usaha penternakan dari kolam tanah, kolam tangki, kolam kanvas dan kolam simen. Dan pada hari ini kami boleh mengatakan bahawa ada juga ‘cakap-cakap teori’ tidak boleh digunakan untuk digunakan dalam kerja-kerja penternakan ikan keli!

Anda harus mensasarkan target usaha anda. Anda mesti tahu di mana kedudukan anda samada anda adalah usahawan penternakan ikan keli secara komersil ataupun sekadar usahawan baru bermula atau ‘main-main’ (suka-suka cuba). Sebabnya masalah atau cabaran bagi usahawan yang mempunyai 10 kolam tidak sama dengan usahawan yang bermula dengan 1000 kolam! Bagi kami sekiranya anda bermula dengan 10 atau 50 kolam, ianya masih dianggap kecil dan di tahap ’suka-suka’ atau percubaan. Sebelum bermula buat unjuran ‘cash-flow’ anda kerana setakat ada perkiraan untung-rugi belum cukup sempurna untuk membuat rujukan kepada pembangunan kewangan perniagaan anda. ‘Cashflow’ ibarat peta perjalanan anda. Tetapkan modal anda, sasarkan tempoh pengeluaran dan bila masa anda akan berhadapan dengan ‘kewangan kritikal’; semuanya boleh didapati jika anda membuat unjuran ‘cash-flow’!

Dan yang paling penting adalah pasaran. Inilah faktor yang menyebabkan ramai usahawan penternak baru mengalami keadaan ‘patah jiwa’ kerana menyangkakan dengan sekali usaha (harvest) anda akan terus jadi JUTAWAN IKAN KELI! Kenyataannya kita (usahawan penternak ikan keli bumiputera) masih jauh untuk mengatasi pengeluaran ikan keli dari ladang-ladang pengusaha bukan bumiputera. Hakikatnya mereka menguasai pasaran dan kekadang melambakkan produk mereka di pasar borong. Harga mereka juga jauh lebih murah iaitu sekadar RM1.80 ke RM2.5 sekg! Sedangkan kebanyakkan usahawan penternak bumiputera tahu kita tidak boleh menjual di bawah harga RM3.20 sekg! Kenapa mereka boleh jual murah?

a. Jumlah pengeluaran mereka yang besar menyebabkan mereka boleh untung kecil dari setiap kg tetapi masih boleh untung kerana jumlah kuantiti penjualan mereka besar. Terdapat lebih dari 10 penternak ladang besar yang dimiliki oleh bukan bumiputera dan kadar pengeluaran setiap ladang bermula dari 5 tan sehari sehingga 10 tan sehari. Setakat ini dari penyelidikan dan pengamatan kami hanya Green Vision dari Bestari Jaya sahaja yang mampu mengeluarkan sehingga 3 tan sehari!

b. Kos makanan yang murah kerana mereka juga adalah penternak ayam dan khinzir. Oleh itu segala bahan buangan termasuk najis, organ dalaman ayam dan khinzir yang sepatutnya dibuang dapat dijadikan ‘multiple income’ kepada mereka. Jadi, mereka bukan sahaja melaksanakan penternakan ikan keli, sebaliknya income besar mereka adalah dari ayam dan khinzir dan kos buangan pula boleh disalurkan kepada kolam ikan keli yang juga menambah keuntungan mereka! Sedangkan penternak kita kebanyakkannya membeli makanan ikan pellets yang dibeli dari kilang atau kedai-kedai yang kini semakin mahal.

c. Jaringan perniagaan yang sudah lama wujud menyebabkan mereka dapat menjual ikan keli di pasar-pasar borong, hypermarket dan pasar-pasar malam. Malah FAMA juga membantu mereka memasarkan ikan-ikan keli di seluruh negara termasuk Kelantan dan Terengganu!

Namun begitu Tuhan itu Maha adil! Kita mampu menerjah pasaran ini di mana KUALITI ikan keli yang diternak oleh kebanyakkan penternak kita yang menggunakan makanan 100% pellet adalah LEBIH ENAK DAN SEDAP dari ikan keli dari ladang bukan bumiputera. Walaupun kami belum boleh mengiktiraf semua produk ikan keli kita adalah KELI ORGANIK, tetapi memadailah kita mempunyai jalan keluar kepada masalah utama ini.

Kami menasihatkan kepada penternak-penternak bumiputera yang mempunyai kurang dari 50 kolam agar meneroka sendiri pasaran ke kedai-kedai makanan orang kita yang memang inginkan ikan-ikan keli kita kerana lebih sedap dari ikan keli dari pasar borong. Dan yang pentingnya kita boleh menjual pada kadar harga dari RM4.50 ke RM5.00 sekg.

Bagi usahawan-usahawan penternak ikan keli secara komersil, adalah penting utk mereka mendapatkan dahulu pembeli-pembeli ikan keli samada untuk diesksport, diproses atau dihantar ke kilang-kilang Keli Sardin dan Keli Smoke atau kilang-kilang industri hiliran berasaskan ikan.

Yang paling penting untuk semua usahawan-usahawan penternak ikan keli, ingatlah pesanan jujur ini dari kami:


Kami akan huraikan maksud perkataan ini di posting yang lain. Selamat menternak. Salam akhir Ramadhan dan SELAMAT HARI RAYA AIDLIFITRI kepada semua pelanggan-pelanggan dan sahabat-sahabat kami dan pohon ampun dan maaf ke atas segala kesilapan, ketelanjuran atau kebiadapan semasa kita berhubungan di dunia perniagaan ini. Terima kasih di atas sokongan anda semua.

p.s. Kursus Penternakan Asas Ikan Keli Di Negeri Sarawak Boleh Di Ikuti Melalui Syarikat Ainul Agro Based. Untuk Maklumat lanjut sila layari blog


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